No. Firm  /  Address  / Years of Use  / Notes Perfin Stamps Perforated
(Edifil 2012 Catalog)
Front Reverse
(* Mirror image)
Cover
(Click to enlarge)
Núm. Compañia /  Dirección / Años en uso / Notas Perfin sellos perforados
(Edifil 2012 Catálogo)
Frente Reverso
(* imagen espejo)
Cubierta
(pulse para vista detallada)
01 Avery & Company
La Habana
1917
This identification has not been confirmed by a cover.
Esta identificacion no se ha verificado en cubierta.
Click on this link for more A&C stamps.
A and C 205, 206, 206a, 207 A and C perfin A and C reverse perfin
No cover has been documented
Ningun uso en cubierta se ha reportado.
02 Banco Nacional de Cuba
Obispo & Cuba, La Habana
1914 - 1919

Click on this link for more BNC covers and stamps.

BNC 195, 196, 196A, 198, 198A, 200, 200A, 204, 205, 206, 206a, 207, 208, 210, 212 BNC perfin BNC reverse perfin* BNC Cover
13 August 1918
03 Compañía Armour de Cuba 1
(Armour & Company)
Mercaderes 15, Apartado 470, La Habana
1917 - 1928

Subsidiary of the U.S. company of the same name, Armour had large interests in beef and mutton.



Click on this link for more CA covers and stamps.

CA
(Monogram)
205, 206, 206a, 207, 214, 215, 224
Timbre Nacional revenue
CA monogram perfin CA monogram reverse perfin* Armour Cover
21 June 1922
04 Cuban Telephone Co.
Aguila & Dragones (P.O. Box 945), La Habana
1917 - 1933

The Cuban Telephone Company was a subsidiary of IT&T



Click on this link for more CTC covers and stamps.

CTC image 203, 205, 206, 206a, 207, 208, 210, 214, 215, 218, 222, 223, 224, 227, 233, 242, 245, 247, 252, 253, 269, 272, 273A CTC perfin CTC reverse perfin* CTC Cover
17 June 1924
05 R.G. Dun & Company
Obispo & Cuba (Banco Nacional building), Apartado 900, La Habana
1911 - 1938

Robert Graham Dun was a merchant, financial services broker. He began his career in Tappan & Douglass, the first mercantile agency in New York City, in 1850, becoming partner in 1854. He opened his own credit-rating firm in 1861, R. G. Dun & Company, with branches in major cities nationwide. The company was an early adopter of office machinery, including the typewriter, on which he composed the weekly "Dun's Review" to review international business condition. The firm later merged to form Dun & Bradstreet, one of the best known credit-rating and financial services publishing firms in the country.



Click on this link for more DUN covers and stamps.

DUN image 190, 191, 195, 195A, 196, 196A, 201, 205, 206, 206a, 207, 215, 245, 251, 252, 253, 263, 266, 267, 272, 273, 302
Postal Tax 1
DUN perfin DUN reverse perfin* DUN Cover
This may be an unauthorized use.2
Este quizas sea un uso no autorizado.2
06 Enrique Armaignac
Gallo 66 (now 10 de Octubre), Santiago de Cuba
1917 - 1945

This company sold boots, shoes, harnesses and saddles.

Click on this link for an EA cover and stamps.

EA 205, 206, 207, 215, 256, 269 EA perfin EA perfin* EA Cover
21 March 1934
07 El Sol de Canadá
(Sun Life Assurance Company of Canada)
Aguiar 75, La Habana
1917 - 1948

Click on this link for more EL SOL covers and stamps.

EL
SOL
205, 206, 206a, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 215, 216, 217, 218, 222, 225, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 234, 244, 245, 246, 247, 247a, 248, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 255a, 256, 256a, 261, 262, 263, 264, 267, 268, 269, 271, 273, 274, 275, 281, 284, 300, 307, 328, 330, 331, 332, 335s, 336, 338, 342, 345, 357, 358, 361, 370, 380, 384, 389, 395, 408, 411
Semipostal 1
Postal Tax 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
EL SOL perfin EL SOL reverse perfin* EL SOL Cover
16 September 1940
07a El Sol de Canadá
(Sun Life Assurance Company of Canada)
La Habana
1941
EL
SOL

3 additional control holes 3 and bent "E"
Postal Tax
(Sobretasa postal) 4
EL SOL EL SOL reverse*
No cover has been documented
Ningun uso en cubierta se ha reportado.
08 Empresa Naviera de Cuba
San Pedro 6, La Habana
1914 - 1939

This company was a steamship line with regular service to New York, San Juan and Central America. In 1940, the ship Cuba plied the waters between Havana, Santiago de Cuba, Ciudad Trujillo, San Juan, Curaçao and La Guaira.

Click on this link for more ENC stamps.

ENC diagonal 203, 205, 206, 207, 208, 214, 215, 222, 245, 247, 251, 252, 253, 255, 256, 263, 264, 267, 269, 273, 274, 279, 281, 286, 290, 293, 294, 300, 333, 340
Semipostal 1
ENC diagonal perfin ENC diagonal reverse perfin*
A single example of the ENC diagonal perfin has been reported on cover, but the owner has died and it has not been seen since, despite efforts to locate it. It's image was never published.
09 Empresa Naviera de Cuba
La Habana
ca. 1930

Here is what Cuban collector Alfredo Díaz Gámez has to say about the ENC horizontal perfin: "This horizontal mark is a controversial one. Some references have attributed it to the same enterprise as the diagonal ENC, the Empresa Naviera de Cuba, but this matter leads to certain questions. Why did this enterprise use two different marks at the same time? Why was the Gómez 1930 2c stamp (Edifil 252, Scott 309) perfined with both marks, diagonal and horizontal? Did Empresa Naviera, located at Havana, have an office in another city and therefore need to use two different marks to identify each one? I cannot answer those questions, but I personally think that maybe the horizontal ENC doesn't belong to Empresa Naviera de Cuba, but to another unknown company, coincidently with the same initials."

ENC
horizontal
251, 252 ENC perfin drawing
No cover has been documented
Ningun uso en cubierta se ha reportado.
10 Frank Robins Company 1
Edificio Robins, Obispo & Habana, La Habana
1917 - 1925

This firm dealt in musical instruments and office equipment. It has also been connected to advertising for the Remington Typewriter Co. and the Burroughs Adding Machine Co.

This identification has not been confirmed by a cover of the company, but four postcards have been produced that were written over a period of three years with FRCo perfins, all written by an employee of the Frank Robins Company.


Click on this link for more FRCo covers and stamps.

FRCo diagonal 205, 206, 206a, 207, 208, 210, 215
Timbre Nacional revenue
FRCo perfin FRCo reverse perfin* FRCo Cover
5 May 1924
No cover has been documented on letterhead of company
This postcard was written by an employee of Frank Robins Co. See the story by following the link at left.2
11 General Electric Cubana, S.A.
Obispo 79 (formerly Prado & Animas), La Habana
1930-1960

A subsidiary of the U.S. firm, it distributed refrigeration equipment and household appliances.



 

Click on this link for more GE covers and stamps.

GE 246, 247, 248, 251, 252, 253, 255, 255a, 256, 256a, 258, 261, 263, 264, 330, 331, 332, 334, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340, 342, 349, 351, 361, 362, 363, 364, 367, 368, 370, 375, 377, 379, 380, 382, 387, 388, 390, 391, 392, 395, 398, 402, 403, 407, 408, 409, 418, 419, 422, 424, 432, 433, 440, 511, 536, 537, 553, 555, 566, 567, 571, 576, 578, 579, 586, 601, 602, 642, 650, 665, 726, 750, 834
Postal Tax 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 16, 16a, 18, 32, 34, 42
GE perfin GE reverse perfin* GE Cover
25 October 1940
12 José Llano
Obispo 111 (at the corner of Compostela), La Habana
1917-1930

José Llano was the owner of a jewelry store in downtown Havana which also carried crystal glassware.

This identification has not been confirmed by a cover.
Esta identificacion no se ha verificado en cubierta.

Click on this link for more JLL stamps.

JLL image 205, 206, 210, 240 JLL JLL reverse perfin*
No cover has been documented
Ningun uso en cubierta se ha reportado.
13 Monroe & Company
Edificio Robins, 510, Osbispo & Habana, La Habana
1914-1917

This was a publishing agency which rented offices in the upper floors or the Frank Robins Co. building in Havana. It specialized in advertising production for periodicals and journals.

This identification has not been confirmed by a cover.
Esta identificacion no se ha verificado en cubierta.
M and co image 196, 196A, 206 M and Co M and CO perfin*
No cover has been documented
Ningun uso en cubierta se ha reportado.
14 Unknown firm
1914

Probably a U.S. firm. It is listed in the U.S. Perfins Catalog as M54 belonging to an unidentified user with known usages from 1912-1917. It is also listed in the U.S. Revenue Catalog as MA0160 with uses on documentary stamps.

Unknown company 195 McC perfin McC reverse perfin*
No cover has been documented
Ningun uso en cubierta se ha reportado.
15 National City Bank of New York 1
O'Reilly & Compostela, La Habana
1914 - 1946

Click on this link for more NCB covers and stamps.

NCB diagonal 203, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 229, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 247, 251, 252, 253, 254, 256, 258, 259, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272A, 273, 273A, 274, 275, 278, 281, 293, 297, 302, 303, 304, 328, 330, 331, 332, 380, 384, Postal Tax 1, Semi-Postal 1, Timbre Nacional revenue NCB perfin NCB reverse perfin* 1903 Cover
14 October 1938
16 New York Life Insurance Company
La Habana
1914 - 1917

Click on this link for more NLY stamps.

NLY image 195, 196, 196A, 198, 205, 206, 206a, 207, 208, 210 NLY perfin NLY reverse perfin*
No cover has been documented
Ningun uso en cubierta se ha reportado.
17 National Paper & Type Co. of Cuba, S.A.1
O'Reilly 46, La Habana
1914 - 1938

This is the Havana branch of the much larger U.S. enterprise which imported and distributed paper products and office goods.


 
This identification has not been confirmed by a cover.
Esta identificacion no se ha verificado en cubierta.

Click on this link for more NPT covers and stamps.

NPT diagonal 203, 206, 207, 208, 210, 215, 244, 245, 247, 251, 252, 253, 271, 328, Semi-Postal 1
Timbre Nacional revenue
NPT perfin NPT reverse perfin* NPT Cover
13 September 1927
No cover has been documented on letterhead of company
This may be an unauthorized use.2
Este quizas sea un uso no autorizado.2
18 Odriozola y Cía 1
D'Clouet 12, Cienfuegos
1917 - 1925

This firm imported and distributed hardware.



Click on this link for more O&C covers and stamps.

O and C diagonal 205, 206, 210, 214
Timbre Nacional revenue
ONC perfin ONC reverse perfin
No cover has been documented, but the timbre nacional revenue stamp at left bears the imprint of "Odriozola y Cía"
Ningun uso en cubierta se ha reportado.
19 Parke, Davis & Cía
Gervasio 137, La Habana
1930 - 1951

Click on this link for more PD covers and stamps.

PD 244, 247, 248, 253, 256, 256a, 258, 263, 264, 265, 268, 294, 330, 331, 332, 336, 338, 340, 342, 349, 355, 369, 389, 396, 401, 403, 407, 408, 418, 426, 432, 433,
Postal Tax 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 14
PD perfin PD reverse perfin* PD cover thumbnail
15 June 1943
20 Quiñones Hardware Corporation 1
Monte 214-222, La Habana
1917 - 1919

This company began in 1916 using an English language name. It's corner card read "Ferreteria y Maquinaria" which means hardware and machinery.



Click on this link for a QHC cover and stamps.

QHC diagonal 205, 206, 206a, 207, 215
Timbre Nacional revenue
QHC perfin QHC perfin* QHC Cover
29 January 1919
This single example of the QHC perfin on cover is owned by a collector in the Netherlands.
21 Ricardo Veloso y Cía, Cultural S.A.
Galiano 62 (corner of Neptuno), La Habana
1917 - 1949

Libreria Cervantes was Ricardo Veloso Guerra's Havana bookstore, founded in 1910. Eventually boasting the largest inventory of books in Havana, Libreria Cervantes also distinguished itself as the first bookstore in the city to sell books on credit. Veloso also edited and published books for Cervantes. In 1926, Veloso merged his company with Cultural S.A. and they expanded their business in Cuba as well as abroad. In the process, they assumed a prominent role in Havana's literary and cultural circles.


Click on this link for more RV&Co. covers and stamps.

RV
&
Co.




Click on this link for RV&Co. pin break varieties.

205, 206, 206a, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 224, 226, 229, 234, 235, 241, 244, 245, 247, 248, 251, 252, 253, 255, 256, 256a, 257, 258, 259, 261, 263, 264, 265, 266, 269, 270, 273A, 277, 279, 280, 284, 293, 296, 304, 328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 334, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340, 342, 345, 348, 349, 350, 351, 353, 354, 357, 360, 361, 364, 365, 369, 371, 373, 374, 380, 382, 384, 390, 391, 396, 401, 403, 405, 411, 419
Semi-Postal 1, Postal Tax 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
RV and Co., Cultural S.A. perfin RV and C reverse perfin* R.V. Cultural Cover
24 March 1942
22 Droguería Sarrá 1
Teniente Rey & Compostela, La Habana
1914 - 1954

Droguería Sarrá was established in 1853 in Havana by Dr. José Sarrá to provide pharmaceutical and homeopathic products. Under his son, Dr. Ernesto José Sarrá, Droguería Sarrá was expanded and improved to become the largest pharmaceutical and distribution company in Cuba and in Latin America until 1960 when the government confiscated all private businesses.


Click on this link for more SARRA covers and stamps.

SA
RRA
203, 205, 206, 206a, 207, 208, 210, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 220, 222, 224, 225, 241, 244, 245, 246, 247, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 258, 259, 261, 263, 264, 265, 267, 268, 269, 271, 272, 272A, 273A, 274, 275, 277, 278, 279, 281, 281a, 286, 287, 288s, 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 302, 303, 304, 331, 332, 336, 337, 339, 357, 414, 590
Postal Tax 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25
Timbre Nacional revenue
SARRA perfin SARRA reverse perfin* 1903 Cover
22 June 1936
23 Solís Entrialgo y Compañía
Galiano 77 (Corner of San Rafael), La Habana
1917 - 1929

In 1888 two brothers who emigrated to Cuba, José (Don Pepe) and Bernardo Solis, established a dry goods store at the corner of Galiano and San Rafael. They joined forces with Entrialgo Aquilino, forming the commercial firm of Solis Entrialgo and Cia. in 1900. It later operated a large luxury department store under the trade name El Encanto (the charm).



Click on this link for more SEC covers and stamps.

SEC diagonal 205, 206, 206a, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 214, 215, 216, 217, 221, 222, 223, 224, 229, 231 SEC perfin SEC reverse perfin* SEC Cover
12 April 1929

Official Punch Perfin

24 República de Cuba
Official punch, 1904
Revaluation of postal card from 2 centavos to 1 centavo

Click on this link for more República de Cuba official punch covers.

1 Tarjeta postal 69 Cuba 1 centavo Official Punch reverse 1903 Cover
27 February 1904
25 República de Cuba
Post Office Department

Official punch, 1917 - 1928 known usage
Tarjeta de Identificación (Identification Card)
Tarjeta de Identificacion 200A, 210, 218 Tarjeta de Identificacion Tarjeta de Identificacion reverse* 1917 Tarjeta de Identificacion
26 República de Cuba
Official punch, 1960
PAGADO
(PAID)
Postal Tax 39
Scott C204 (1960)
PAGADO (Paid) PAGADO reconstruction

Perfins known only on Cuban Revenue Stamps

27 Unknown firm AECo Timbre Nacional revenue stamps
Recargo 1957-1958
AECo perfin
28 J.F. Berndes & Co.
[Tentative ID]
Calle Cuba 64, La Habana

This company was active in the sugar and machinery business in the last part of the 19th century and the early 20th century. In 1918 it was blacklisted by the U.S. and then Cuba for trading with Germany during World War I.

This identification has not been confirmed.
Esta identificacion no se ha verificado.
JFBCo image Sello revenue stamps
&
Pagos al Estado revenue stamps

(literally, "Payments to the State" a gross business tax paid with this revenue stamp) and Sello (Stamp Tax or Timbre Movil), a revenue collected on insurance policies, stock certificates and the like.

J.F. Berndes and Co. perfin on revenue stamp
Click for large sized image.
29 Unknown firm
L&Co Giro revenue stamps

A revenue stamp was required on Giros (money orders, bills of exchange, drafts). In the example shown, one paid one peso as revenue to the government to place this stamp on a money order in the amount of 1000 to 2000 pesos.

L and Co. perfin
Click for large sized image.
30 N. Gelats y Cía
[Tentative ID]
Aguiar 108, La Habana

This company was listed in an 1896 business directory as engaging in "banks and banking" and "commission merchants - importer and exporter".

This identification has not been confirmed.
Esta identificacion no se ha verificado.
NG and Co Giro revenue stamps NGCo
Click for large sized image.
31 Union Discount Co of London, Ltd
38 Lombard Street (1885-90) and 39 Cornhill (1890-), London, England

This is a British company known to have perfined the revenue stamps of many countries.

CTC image Pagos al Estado revenue stamps

(literally, "Payments to the State" a gross business tax paid with this revenue stamp)

Union Discount Co.
Click for large sized image.
Mystery Perfins
Here are some mystery perfins on Cuban stamps. John Welsch's examples are all on revenue stamps. The first three appear to be perfin cancels. The fourth, AECo, is clearly a company. Bob Szymanski's example is anyone's guess. Do you have any idea what they represent?
Perfin mysteries
More unknown perfins
Here are some more mystery perfins on Cuban revenue stamps. Do you have any idea what they represent?
More perfin mysteries

Footnotes:
1 Perfins of this company appear on revenue stamps (Timbre Nacional ), as well as commercial uses such as regular postage, airmail, postage tax stamps and semipostal stamps.
2 Many perfin collectors regard anything other than use on the pattern's firm envelope as spurious. It is most likely someone helping themselves to a little free postage.
3 The Perfins Club has a glossary that defines "control hole" (also known as a "code hole") as an additional hole extra to the normal design.

A Brief History of Perfins and Perforators

Perforating Machine, 1908 Perforating Machine, 1908

Perfins originated in England where, unlike the U.S., one could take unused postage back to the post office and redeem it for cash. In 1868, when they were first allowed use on postage, a penny stamp was a fairly significant amount to a company junior clerk making perhaps 5 - 10 pence per week. A stamp with a perfin in it could not be redeemed. The use of perfins at least moderated theft from the company because, at least in theory, the post office would not accept perfin mail from anyone but the firm that had ownership. But, of course, there were always ways around the system and letters did get sent. At minimum, it prevented an employee from reselling discounted postage. The wide spread use of postage meters and permit indicia ended the practice of using perfins.

So how were the stamps perforated? Two examples from circa 1908 are in the illustrations on the right. One example shows a machine with 10 dies. You could perforate an entire sheet of stamps without separating them. To determine how many stamps would be perforated with one stroke of the lever, the strip of 10 would be multiplied by the number of sheets. For example, the legend tells us that if three initials are set to be punched (the most common), then four sheets of stamps can be inserted. With each stroke of the lever you would then punch 40 stamps. Sheets of 100 stamps then would require 10 strokes. This represented a fairly efficient way of perforating stamps.

Smaller firms that could not afford to shell out $60 or more for a 10 die machine could purchase a single die or two die machine (also illustrated). One could purchase a one die, 3 character, punch for $12 which was still a lot of money in 1908! In terms of saving money perforating, say, 2¢ stamps, you would have to prevent the theft of 600 stamps to justify the purchase of a $12 machine.

If one got in too much of a hurry and inserted too many sheets of stamps at one time, pins could break. This would be one explanation for seeing perfins where different holes are missing on different stamps; namely different dies are involved. Furthermore, over time with pin breakage one will find many different pin punches missing on stamps from a particular firm.

Orientation of a Perfin Punch

If you want to completely describe a perfin, you will want to describe how the punch is oriented. The first step is to look at the perfin and see if it reads correctly on the front side or back side. There are four orientation positions for each. The chart below illustrates the eight possible positions.

U.S. perfin collectors pay scant attention to orientation, perhaps because of the large number of U.S. perfins. On the other hand, in some smaller countries such as Finland, which only has 11 perfin patterns, they have a numbering system for orientation that follows a clockwise rotation (using Roman, rather than Arabic, numerals). Perhaps collectors there have more desire to expand their searches due to the limit on the number of perfins. There are eight times as many things to look for.

I have incorporated a numbering system (in blue) as well as a lettering system (in bold black) to provide a shorthand description.

Orientation of a perfin punch

Earliest known use of a perfin postage stamp in Cuba

The earliest known use of a perfin postage stamp (other than the official punch of the 1903 postal stationery card) will surprise you. Take a look by following this link.

Perfin Glossary

The Perfins Club included this glossary in their first Cumulative Index. Some of these terms have applicability in general philately, but some are distinct to the world of perfins. The glossary follows:


Cuban Perfin Bibliography

The links are to PDF copies of these articles.

  1. Cantens, Laura and Augustin; "Cuban Perfins", The Cuban Philatelist, Vol. 2, No. 2, October, 1972, p. 11. The beginnings of Cuban perfin study.
  2. Cantens, Laura and Augustin; "Cuban Perfins", The Cuban Philatelist, Vol. 2, No. 4, April, 1973, p. 11. Twelve unique patterns found and illustrated.
  3. Roy, Rudy; "Cuban Perfins", The Cuban Philatelist, Vol. 3, No. 1, July, 1973, p. 12. Four new patterns: O&C, QHC, M&co, and ENC
  4. Roy, Rudy; "Cuban Perfins", The Cuban Philatelist, Vol. 3, No. 2, October, 1973, p. 14. Sixteen patterns known, eight identified (one, CA monogram, misidentified)
  5. Roy, Rudy; "Perfin Recap", The Cuban Philatelist, Vol. 5, No. 4, April, 1976, p. 5. Number of patterns up to nineteen.
  6. Roy, Rudy; "The Perfins of Cuba", The Perfins Bulletin, Vol. 30, No. 2, Whole No. 296; February, 1977, p. 3. A recap of perfin knowledge with first illustrated list of 19 patterns.
  7. "Sabía usted que... [Did you know...]", filatelia cubana, year 16, No. 2, May-Aug 1981, p. 49. A one page unattributed blurb on Cuban perfins reiterating common knowledge.
  8. Tyx, Mark; "The Cuban Republic's First Postal Card", Postal Stationery, The Journal of the United Postal Stationery Society; Vol. 26, No. 1, January-February, 1984, p. 163. Reprinted in The Perfins Bulletin, Vol. 37, No. 9, Whole No. 373; October, 1984, p. 163-167. Detailed story of the "official punch" of the U.S. Liberty overprinted postal card.
  9. Iglesias, Marcos A., "Cuban Perfins and Medicine (Los Perfins Cubano y la temática médica)", Scalpel and Tongs, March, 1986, p. 46. (English and Spanish versions).
  10. García-Frutos, Silvia, and Valdéz, Alfredo; "Perfins / Iniciales Perforadas", The Cuban Philatelist, Vol. 4, No. 11, July-Aug 1992, p. 24.
  11. Schwerdt, Robert J., Ed.; The World Perfins Catalog, American Section, The Perfins Club, 1992. Compendium of 23 patterns known on Cuban postage and revenue stamps.
  12. Scheper, D.; "De perfins van Cuba", Perfinpost, No. 48, February, 1999 (in Dutch).
  13. Roy, Rudy; Cuban Perfins - an Update / Los Perfins de Cuba Actualizados" The Cuban Philatelist, Last Third, 2001, p. 104. QHC cover discovered; other new finds illustrated.
  14. García-Frutos, Silvia; "The Consolidated Railroads Perfin (FRCo) / Los Perfins de los Ferrocarriles Consolidados (FRCo)", The Cuban Philatelist, Second Third, 2002, p. 61. A misstep in the identification of FRCo.
  15. Fernández López, Marta Rosa and Díaz Gámez, Alfredo; "Apuntes Para un Catálogo de Sellos Cubanos con Perforaciones de Empresas" (Notes for a Catalog of Cuban Perfins), Revista de Filatelia, April, 2003, p. 289 (in Spanish). The most complete coverage to that time with a list of known perfin stamps, addresses of firms, known dates of use, etc.
  16. Roy, Rudy; "Perfins as Postal History #9 – Mixed Country Franking", The Perfins Bulletin, Vol. 60, No. 5, May, 2006, p. 87. NCB perfin on U.S. airmail stamp posted in Havana.
  17. Díaz Gámez, Alfredo; "Los Sellos Perfins y Su Uso en Cuba" (Perfin stamps and their use in Cuba); Boletín Electrónico "El Ojo de la Aguja", Year 1, No. 6, May, 2007, pp. 2-4 (original in Spanish, but also translation to English).
  18. Díaz Gámez, Alfredo; "Los perfins cubanos y las máquinas perforadoras", Folletos de Filatelia - Federación Filatélica Cubana, No. 1, 2011, pp. 46-49 (in Spanish). Nice compendium of knowledge by the Dean of Cuban perfin collectors.
  19. Littrell, Robert; "An Internet Adventure - How I Identified the Cuban FRCo Perfin", The Perfins Bulletin, Vol. 66, No. 2, Whole No. 633, March/April, 2012, p. 34. Reprinted in slightly changed format in Journal of Cuban Philately, Vol. 3, No. 1, Whole No. 7, Jan-Mar, 2012, pp. 20 - 21 (in English and Spanish). A fascinating detective story of discovery.
  20. Littrell, Robert; "Perfin Update – Which Cuban Perfins Remain Unidentified?", The Perfins Bulletin, Vol. 66, No. 3, Whole No. 634, May-June, 2012, pp. 64-65. Reprinted in Journal of Cuban Philately, Vol. 3, No. 2, Whole No. 8, Apr-Jun, 2012, pp. 9 - 11 (in English and Spanish). Current knowledge with extensive references.
  21. Littrell, Robert; "Another Cuban Perfin Proved - O&C", The Perfins Bulletin, Vol. 67, No. 1, Whole No. 638, Jan.-Feb., 2013, p 4. Reprinted in Journal of Cuban Philately, Vol. 4, No. 1, Whole No. 11, Jan-Mar, 2013, p. 16 (in English and Spanish). Discovery of the ownership of the O&C perfin as Odriozola y Cía.
  22. Littrell, Robert; "Two New Cuban Perfins - L&Co and McC", The Perfins Bulletin, Vol. 67, No. 2, Whole No. 639, Mar.- Apr., 2013, p 39. Reprinted in Journal of Cuban Philately, Vol. 4, No. 1, Whole No. 11, Jan-Mar, 2013, p. 15 (in English and Spanish).
  23. Littrell, Robert; "DUN Cuban Perfin Cover Discovered", The Perfins Bulletin, Vol. 67, No. 3, Whole No. 640, May - Jun., 2013, p 49.
  24. Littrell, Robert; "Broken Pins of the RV&Co. Cuban Perfin", The Perfins Bulletin, Vol. 67, No. 4, Whole No. 641, Jul.-Aug., 2013, p 73.
  25. Littrell, Robert and Millar, Michael; "New Cuban Revenue Perfin: NG&Co", The Perfins Bulletin, Vol. 67, No. 5, Whole No. 642, Sep.-Oct., 2013, p 99. Reprinted in Journal of Cuban Philately, Vol. 4, No. 2, Whole No. 12, Apr-Jun, 2013, p. 15 (in English and Spanish).
  26. Littrell, Robert; "Cuban Perfins - Los Perfins Cubanos", Journal of Cuban Philately, Vol. 4, No. 3, Whole No. 13, July-Sept, 2013, p. 5 (in English and Spanish). This consists of the draft of a new set of pages for The World Perfin Catalog - American Section including listing of and an illustration of all known Cuban perfins, together with a copy of the 1920 Cuban regulation pertaining to perfins on Cuban stamps.
  27. Littrell, Robert; "Two Unusual Revenue Uses of Perfins on Cuban Postage Stamps (Dos usos fiscales poco comunes de sellos 'perfin' de correos)", Journal of Cuban Philately, Vol. 4, No. 3, Whole No. 13, July-Sept, 2013, p. 11 (in English and Spanish). Reprinted in The Perfins Bulletin, Vol. 67, No. 6, Whole No. 643, Nov.-Dec., 2013, p 126. This describes two revenue uses of SA/RRA and TDEI perfins.
  28. Littrell, Robert; "Important Discoveries About Cuban Dun Perfins (Descubrimientos importantes en sellos cubanos perforados 'Dun')", Journal of Cuban Philately, Vol. 4, No. 4, Whole No. 14, October-December, 2013, p. 14 (in English and Spanish). This updates the prior Perfins Bulletin article (No. 23 of this list) and states the basis for belief that the catalog listing of the Cuban Dun perfin should not have a separate listing for the variety without control holes. Reprinted in different format as "Cuban DUN Revisited", The Perfins Bulletin, Vol. 68, No.1, Whole No. 644, Jan.-Feb., 2014, p 16.
  29. Littrell, Robert; "Broken Pins of the RV&Co. Cuban Perfin (Pernos Perforadores Rotos en el Perfin RV&Co.)", Journal of Cuban Philately, Vol. 5, No. 1, Whole No. 15, Jan.-March, 2014, p. 15 (in English and Spanish).

References and Links